Sleep Epidemiology Research & Sleep-EVALTM Diagnosis Expert System

Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Journal

Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center (SSERC)

Psy-EVAL Research


"Not everything that can be counted counts,
and not everything that counts can be counted."


Research Publications
Last edited | 05/11/2012

In Press

 Léger D, Ohayon M, Beck F, Vecchierini MF. Prévalence de l'insomnie : actualité épidémiologique. Médecine du Sommeil. In press

Philip P, Sagaspe P, Lagarde E, Leger D, Ohayon MM, Bioulac B, Boussuge J, Taillard J. Sleep disorders and accidental risk in a large group of regular registered highway drivers. Sleep Medicine: In press


Di Milia L, Smolensky MH, Costa G, Howarth HD, Ohayon MM, Philip P. Demographic Factors, Fatigue, and Driving Accidents: An Examination of the Published Literature. Accid Anal Prev. 2011 Mar;43(2):516-32. Review.

Smolensky MH, Di Milia L, Ohayon MM, Philip P. Sleep disorders, medical conditions, and road accident risk. Accid Anal Prev. 2011 Mar;43(2):533-48. Review.

Ohayon MM. Nocturnal awakenings and difficulty resuming sleep: their burden in the European general population. J Psychosom Res. 2010 Dec;69(6):565-71. Epub 2010 Apr 28.

Ohayon MM, Bader G. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia in the Swedish population aged 19-75 years. leep Med. 2010 Dec;11(10):980-6. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Ohayon MM, Sagales T. Prevalence of insomnia and sleep characteristics in the general population of Spain. Sleep Med. 2010 Dec;11(10):1010-8. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Ohayon MM, Schenk C. Violent Behavior During Sleep: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Consequences. Sleep Med. 2010 Oct;11(9):941-6.

Ohayon MM, Smolensky MH, Roth T. Consequences of shiftworking on sleep duration and sleep attacks.Chronobiology International 2010;27(3):575-89.

Ohayon MM, Schatzberg AF. Chronic pain and major depressive disorder in the general population. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(7):454-61.

Ohayon MM, Reynolds CF 3rd. Epidemiological and clinical relevance of insomnia diagnosis algorithms according to the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Sleep Med. 2009;10(9):952-60.

Ohayon MM. Pain sensitivity, depression, and sleep deprivation: links with serotoninergic dysfunction. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43(16):1243-5.

Ohayon MM. Observation of the Natural Evolution of Insomnia in the American General Population Cohort. Sleep Med Clin 2009; 4:87-92.

Ohayon MM. Brain exploration and schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Mar;43(6):583-4.

Ohayon MM. About suicide and its prevention. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43(10):885-6.

Ohayon MM. Genetics and psychiatry: time for a multidimensional approach? J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43(13):1065-6.

Ohayon MM. Difficulty in resuming or inability to resume sleep and the links to daytime impairment: definition, prevalence and comorbidity. J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Jul;43(10):934-40.

Ohayon MM. Nocturnal awakenings and comorbid disorders in the American general population. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;43:48-54.

Ohayon MM. Sleep disturbances and their impact on medical disease and morbidity. Int J Sleep Wakefulness – Prim Care 2008; 1:141-145

Ohayon MM. From wakefulness to excessive sleepiness: what we know and still need to know. Sleep Med Rev 2008; 12: 129-141

Ohayon MM. Comportements violents ou dangeureux durant le sommeil [Violent or dangerous behaviors during sleep] NeuroPsy News 2008; 7: 63-70

Ohayon MM. Prevalence et comorbidite des troubles du sommeil en population generale. Rev Prat. 2007 ;57(14):1521-1528

Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of circadian rhythm disorders in depression. Medicographia 2007; 29:10-16

Ohayon MM Insomnia: a ticking clock for depression? J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(11):893-4

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C. Sleep-disordered breathing and C-reactive protein: a commentary. Sleep. 2007;30(6):679

Ohayon MM, Schatzberg AF. Biomarkers and classifications. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(8):623-4

Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of depression and its treatment in the general population. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(3-4):207-13

Ohayon MM. Interlacing sleep, pain, mental disorders and organic diseases. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40(8):677-9

Ohayon MM. Solving the puzzle of schizophrenia: Piece by piece. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40(7):577-8

Fine EW, Ohayon M. Clinical and Forensic Assessment, Current Theories of Etiology and Psychopharmacological Treatment for Patients with Comorbid Depression and Chronic Pain. American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry 2006; 27: 1: 47-54

Ohayon MM, Okun ML. Occurrence of sleep disorders in the families of narcoleptic patients. Neurology. 2006;67:703-705.

Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep Medicine Clinics. 2006; 1:9-16.

Ohayon MM. Severe hot flashes are associated with chronic insomnia. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1262-1268.

Ohayon MM. Chronic pain and sleep. Int J Sleep Disorders 2006; 1:16-21.Ohayon MM, Hong SC. Prevalence of Major Depressive disorder in the general population of South Korea. J Psychiatr Res, 2006;40:30-36.

Ohayon MM, Ferini-Strambi L, Plazzi G, Smirne S, Castronovo V. How age influences the expression of narcolepsy. J Psychosom Res. 2005;59:399-405.

Ohayon MM, Ferini-Strambi L, Plazzi G, Smirne S, Castronovo V. Frequency of narcolepsy symptoms and other sleep disorders in narcoleptic patients and their first-degree relatives. J Sleep Res. 2005;14:437-445.

Ohayon MM, Paiva T. Global sleep dissatisfaction for the assessment of insomnia severity in the general population of Portugal. Sleep Medicine, 2005 Sep;6(5):435-41.

Ohayon MM. Insomnia: a dangerous condition but not a killer? Sleep. 2005 Sep 1;28(9):1043-4

Ohayon MM, Vecchierini MF. Normative sleep data, cognitive function and daily living activities in older adults in the community, Sleep, 2005 Aug 1;28(8):981-9.

Ohayon MM. Prevalence and correlates of non-restorative sleep complaints. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:35-41.

Guilleminault C, Kirisoglu C, Ohayon MM. C-reactive protein and sleep disordered breathing. Sleep. 2004 Dec 15;27(8):1507-11.

Ohayon MM. Relationship between chronic painful physical condition and insomnia. J Psychiatr Res. 2005;39:151-9.

Ohayon MM. Specific characteristics of the pain/depression association in the general population. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 12:5-9.

Ohayon MM, Lemoine P. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population]. Encephale. 2004 May-Jun;30(3):222-7.

Ohayon MM, Interactions between sleep normative data and sociocultural characteristics in the elderly. J Psychosom Res. 2004 May;56(5):479-86.

Ohayon MM. Sleep and the elderly. J Psychosom Res. 2004 May;56(5):463-4.

Ohayon MM, Lemoine P. [Sleep and insomnia markers in the general population] Encephale. 2004 Mar-Apr;30(2):135-40.

Poyares D, Guilleminault C, Ohayon MM, Tufik S.Chronic benzodiazepine usage and withdrawal in insomnia patients. J Psychiatr Res. 2004 May-Jun;38(3):327-34.

Ohayon MM. Prevalence and risk factors of morning headaches in the general population. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):97-102.

Ohayon MM. The effects of breathing-related sleep disorders on mood disturbances in the general population. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;64(10):1195-200; quiz, 1274-6.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C. Validation: a dangerous and difficult claim to make. Sleep Med. 2003 Mar;4(2):99.

Ohayon MM, Smirne S. Prevalence and consequences of insomnia disorders in the general population of Italy. Sleep Med. 2002 Mar;3(2):115-20.

Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev. 2002 Apr;6(2):97-111.

Ohayon MM, Schatzberg AF. Using chronic pain to predict depressive morbidity in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;60(1):39-47.

Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37(1):9-15.

Ohayon MM, Partinen M. Insomnia and global sleep dissatisfaction in Finland. J Sleep Res. 2002;11(4):339-46.

Ohayon MM, Lemoine P. [A connection between insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the French general population] Encephale; 2002;28(5 Pt 1):420-8.

Ohayon MM, Schatzberg AF. Prevalence of depressive episodes with psychotic features in the general population. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;159(11):1855-61.

Ohayon MM, Lader M. Use of psychotropic medication in the general population of France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002; 63:817-825

Ohayon MM, Roth T. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the general population. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53:547-554.

Ohayon MM, Hong SC. Prevalence of Insomnia and associated factors in South Korea. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53:593-600.

Ohayon MM, Lemoine P, Arnaud-Briand V, Dreyfus M. Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders in a shift worker population. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53:577-583.

Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM. Tenses of Insomnia Epidemiology. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53:525-527.

Ohayon MM. [Methodology of a study on insomnia in the general population]. Encephale. 2002; 28(3):217-26.

Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, Smirne S, Paiva T. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population. Neurology. 2002 Jun 25;58(12):1826-33.

Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev. 2002 Apr;6(2):97-111.

Ohayon MM, Vechierrini MF. Daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairment in the elderly population. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162:201-208

Ohayon MM, Roth T. What are the Contributing factors for Insomnia in the General Population? J Psychosom Res 2001;51:745-55

Ohayon MM, Roberts RE. Comparability of sleep disorder diagnoses using DSM-IV and ICSD classifications with adolescents. Sleep 2001; 24:920-925.

Ohayon MM, Zulley J. Correlates of global sleep dissatisfaction in the German population Sleep 2001; 24:780-787.

Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne  S, Priest RG. How age and daytime activities are related to insomnia in the general population? Consequences for elderly people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS), 2001; 49:360-366.

Ohayon MM, Li KK, Guilleminault C. Risk factors for sleep bruxism in the general population. Chest 2001;119(1):53-61.

Hosn R, Shapiro CM, Ohayon MM. Diagnostic concordance between sleep specialists and the Sleep-EVAL system in routine clinical evaluations. J Sleep Res 2000; 9(suppl 1) 86.

Ohayon MM. Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological associations in the general population. Psychiatry Res. 2000;97(2-3):153-164.

Ohayon MM, Roberts RE, Zulley J, Smirne S, Priest RG. Prevalence and patterns of problematic sleep among older adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000; 39:1549-1556.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Priest RG, Zulley J. Smirne, S: Is sleep-disordered breathing an independent risk factor for hypertension in the general population (13,057 subjects)? J  Psychosom Res; 2000; 48:593-601.

Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM. Sleep disturbances and comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in the general population. Compr Psychiatry; 2000; 41(6):469-478.

Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, Smirne S. The place of confusional arousals in sleep and mental disorders: General population findings (13057 subjects). J Nerv Ment Dis 2000; 188:340-348.

Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM, Kennedy SH. Differentiating DSM-IV Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in the general population: comorbidity and treatment consequences. Can J Psychiatry 2000;45:166-172.

Ohayon MM. Sleep and Violence. Sleep & Hypnosis 2000; 2:241-247.

Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM. Sleep and fatigue. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 2000; 5:56-57.

Ohayon MM. Improving decision making processes with the fuzzy logic approach in the epidemiology of sleep disorders. J Psychosom Res 1999;47:297-311.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Zulley J, Palombini L, Raab H. Validation of the Sleep-EVAL system against clinical assessments of sleep disorders and polysomnographic data. Sleep 1999; 22:925-30.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Arbus L, Billard M, Coquerel A, Guieu JL, Kullmann B, Laffont F, Lemoine P, Paty J, Pecharde JC, Vecchierini F, Vespignani H. Are prescribed medications effective in the treatment of insomnia complaints? J Psychosom Res 1999; 47:359-68

Ohayon MM, Zulley J. Prevalence of Naps in the general population. Sleep & Hypnosis 1999; 1:88-97.

Ohayon MM, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne S. Prevalence and pathological associations of sleep paralysis in the general population. Neurology 1999;52:1194-200.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Priest RG. Night terrors, sleepwalking, and confusional arousals in the general population: their frequency and relationship to other sleep and mental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:268-76; quiz 277.

Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Guilleminault C, Caulet M. The prevalence of depressive disorders in the United Kingdom. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45:300-7.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Lemoine P. Comorbidity of mental and insomnia disorders in the general population. Compr Psychiatry 1998;39:185-97

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Priest RG, Guilleminault C. Psychotropic medication consumption patterns in the UK general population. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 273-83.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C. Epidemiology of sleep disorders. In: Chokroverty S, Ed. Sleep Disorders Medicine Basic Science, Technical Considerations and Clinical Aspects. Second Edition. Washington: Butterworth Heinemann. 1998:301-16.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Philip P, Guilleminault C, Priest RG. How sleep and mental disorders are related to complaints of daytime sleepiness. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2645-52.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Paiva T, Priest RG, Rapoport DM, Sagales T, Smirne S, Zulley J. An international study on sleep disorders in the general population: methodological aspects of the use of the Sleep-EVAL system. Sleep 1997;20:1086-92.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Guilleminault C. How a general population perceives its sleep, and how this relates to the complaint of insomnia. Sleep 1997;20:715-23.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Priest RG, Guilleminault C. DSM-IV and ICSD-90 insomnia symptoms and sleep dissatisfaction. Br J Psychiatry 1997;171:382-8.

Ohayon MM, Morselli PL, Guilleminault C. Prevalence of nightmares and its relationship to psychopathology and daytime functioning in insomnia subjects. Sleep 1997; 20:340-8.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M, Priest RG. Violent behaviour during sleep. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58:369-76.

Ohayon MM. Prevalence of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of insomnia: distinguishing insomnia related to mental disorders from sleep disorders. J Psychiatr Res 1997; 31: 333-346.

Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Priest RG, Caulet M. Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample. Br Med J 1997; 314:860-3.

Ohayon M, Caulet M, Lemoine P. [The elderly, sleep habits and use of psychotropic drugs by the French population] Encephale 1996;22:337-50.

Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Caulet M, Guilleminault C. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena? Br J Psychiatry 1996;169: 459-67.

Ohayon MM, Caulet M. Psychotropic medication and insomnia complaints in two epidemiological studies. Can J Psychiatry 1996;41: 457-64.

Ohayon M. Epidemiological study on insomnia  in a general population. Sleep 1996;19: S7-S15.

Ohayon M, Caulet M. Insomnia and psychotropic drug consumption. Prog Neuro-Psych Biol Psych 1995;19:421-31.

Ohayon M. Validation of expert systems: Examples and considerations. Medinfo 1995; 8:1071-5.

Ohayon M. Knowledge Based System Sleep-EVAL: Decisional Trees and Questionnaires. Bibliothèque Nationale du Québec, Bibliothèque Nationale du Canada, ISBN 2-921483-06-8, 1995.

Ohayon MM. Sleep-EVAL, Knowledge Based System for the Diagnosis of Sleep and Mental Disorders. Registration #437699, Copyright Office, Canadian Intellectual Property Office. Ottawa: Industry Canada, 1994. (English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish versions).

Ohayon M. [Expert systems in psychiatry: current nosographic orientation]. Ann Med-Psychol (Paris) 1987;145(6):521-526.

Ohayon M. [From logical data access to the development of expert systems] Psychol Med (Paris) 1986;18(4):578-580.

Ohayon M. [Data capture and computer sciences: interest in the assessment of psychotropic medication] Psychol Med (Paris) 1986;18(4):581-583.s

Ohayon M, Fondaraï, J. [Similarities and differences between DSM III and French psychiatric practice]. Ann Med-Psychol (Paris) 1986;144(5):515-530.

More Information


List of Publications



Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Center